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An essential component in the construction of organic solar cells is the Transparent Conducting Electrode (TCE), which serves to conduct electricity within the solar cell. Graphene has emerged as a promising material for TCEs, because of its high transparency and current-carrying capacity, which surpass that of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), the most widely used TCE today. 

The present technology can be applied towards enhancing the performance of graphene as a TCE, which can thus improve the performance of organic solar cells. As a replacement for the increasingly expensive ITO, it also has the potential to lower the cost of organic solar cells.