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The batch-microfabricated electrospray emitters allow for low-voltage, high-throughput generation of ions from ionic liquids. The invention has a hierarchical structure which brings together optimized structures with characteristic lengths spanning five orders of magnitude: mesoscale deflection springs for precision assembly of the extractor electrode die to the emitter array die, microscale emitter tips for field enhancement and low-voltage electrospray emission, and a nanostructured conformal CNT wicking structure that controls the flow rate fed to each emitter to attain high emitter current while maintaining good array emission uniformity.