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Technology

This invention describes systems, devices, and related methods for electromechanical transfer printing of 2D materials disposed on one substrate to another. The printing device can be configured to transfer a 2D material from a source substrate to the target substrate by applying a combination of mechanical and electrostatic forces to facilitate electromechanical adhesion between the 2D material layer and the target substrate. Some embodiments of the printing device can affect direct transfer printing of a 2D material from a source substrate to a target substrate without the use of etchants and adhesives. Some embodiments can include the use of pre-oxidation of the first substrate, a heating element on the second substrate or an applied electric field across either substrate.