Asymmetric PV strings can result from temperature variation, dirt, panel aging, or panel orientation. These asymmetries negatively impact tracking efficiency. To maximize energy extraction, distributed power conversion is employed to enable per-panel or sub-panel maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT). There are three common architectures deployed in residential and commercial PV installations for delivering power to the grid: string inverters, micro-inverters, and DC-DC series power supplies working with a string inverter. Each of these systems has limitations. For example, they are typically constructed with magnetic components which are possibly obtained on a per-panel basis and increase manufacturing costs. High frequency switching complicates electromagnetic interface created by distributed converters.