Fluid volume overload (hypervolemia) indicates progression of various medical conditions, including end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, and liver failure. To remove excess fluid via hemodialysis, clinical staff require accurate measurements of fluid volume to ensure that nonessential fluid is removed, while proper hydration of the patient is maintained. Current methods of evaluating hydration status include measuring blood pressure and body weight, neither of which accurately determine hydration status of muscle, which is the primary fluid reservoir in the body. Without a precise measurement of hydration status, too much fluid may be removed during hemodialysis, leading to intradialytic hypotension. Intradialytic hypotension causes nausea, vomiting, cramping, and chest pain, and, ultimately, can increase the risk of morbidity from bowel ischemia, stroke, and myocardial infarction.
This technology is a single-sided magnetic resonance sensor that precisely monitors intramuscular fluid volume changes through a novel approach combining multicomponent T2 relaxometry, measurement localization via radio frequency (RF) excitation tuning, and diffusion weighting by varying echo time. This sensor facilitates safer removal of excess fluid to improve the quality of life and outcomes of patients with conditions associated with hypervolemia.