Cancer is among the leading causes of mortality, with more than 10 million new cases reported every year in the U.S.A. and Europe. Conventional cancer therapies involve the systemic delivery of anticancer agents. This approach cannot distinguish between cancer cells and normal cells, leading to the damage of healthy tissues. Frequently, solid tumor treatment also involves surgical resection of the tumor, which can cause complications including bleeding at the surgical site and injury to nearby organs. This treatment does not eliminate the risk of recurrence. Moreover, there remains a need for multi-modal cancer therapies to treat cancer synergistically and effectively prevent cancer relapse. Nanotechnology has progressed in recent years to supply important advances in tumor detection, imaging, therapies, and gene and drug delivery systems. This technology is a novel three-pronged therapeutic approach to killing cancer cells with precision and preventing relapse utilizing gene therapy, drug therapy, and phototherapy.