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Problem Addressed

In the realm of computing, superconducting integrated circuits greatly outperform CMOS with many advantages including faster switching speeds, low dissipative switching, and the use of small current pulses for information transfer. The major challenge is the lack of existing high performance integration schemes that meet the stringent requirements of cryogenic applications. Current technologies cannot provide an integration scheme that accommodates the thousands of single flux quantum chips needed for operation. Other requirements include high integration density per chip, a substantially miniaturized cryogenic cooling setup, low-resistance signal paths, and stability over cryogenic temperature ranges.