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Problem Addressed

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide - specifically, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), representing 85% of lung cancer cases. Lung adenocarcinoma, a histologic class of NSCLC, is associated with recurrent mutations in several well-defined oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, such as p53. As a tumor suppressor, p53 plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation, and it is involved in apoptosis, genomic stability, and inhibition of angiogenesis. For instance, p53 is known to be involved in DNA repair, maintaining growth arrest, and ultimately inducing apoptosis if the cell is damaged. In humans, p53 is encoded by the TP53 gene.  Exposure to chemicals, radiation, or viruses increases TP53’s probability of becoming mutant. These mutations are significant because over 50 percent of human tumors are associated with a mutation or deletion of the TP53 gene.