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  • Conversion of diverse forms of biomass (a non-fossil source of carbon, e.g. wood, municipal solid wastes, energy crops, agricultural and forest product residues) to valuable, storable products, e.g. calcium carbide CaC2 a solid, and CO + H2 gas (also called synthesis gas).  These can in turn be converted to a wide selection of valuable products, i.e., fuels, chemical feedstocks, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, and industrial gases.
  • Conversion of mixtures of biomass with fossil materials, e.g. heavy oil, natural gas, coal, shale oil, oil from tar sands, etc. to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals while reducing the fossil-carbon footprint of converting fossil raw materials to these products
  • Storage of electricity, including from solar and wind sources, as solid and gaseous products
  • Reducing the fossil-carbon footprint of steel making
  • Conversion of lignin and other organic residues of pulping to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals, rather than burning these residues
  • Recycling of pulping chemicals, e.g. Na2CO3 and NaOH from pulping wastes
  • Potential elimination (or significant down-sizing) of high capital cost conventional waste liquor recovery furnaces used in pulp and paper manufacture