Header and Body 2

Problem Addressed

Optical isolators are widely used to isolate active optoelectronic components, such as lasers, from unwanted optical feedback. However, current optical isolators utilize bulk magneto-optical materials, birefringent crystals, or bulk optical polarizers. These bulk optical components are constructed from non-semiconductor materials, and consequently cannot be easily integrated with semiconductor lasers or optical amplifiers, which obstruct the development of large scale photonic integrated circuits.