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Problem Addressed

Microelectronic devices must be assembled into organized structures that meet precise design requirements at the nanometer scale. In the semiconductor industry, this is performed using serial lithography. Alternatively, living systems are capable of assembling organic-inorganic molecules to generate complex hybrid structures (e.g., teeth). Unlike traditional processing methods, the use of biological fabrication systems (i.e., cell display method) allows for parallel self-assembly of multiple components on a single device, self-correction, and compositional accuracy in the context of highly complex architectures.