Flexible substrates are light weight and highly resistant to impact damage. In addition, their bendability and foldability make them excellent for extension to very large area substrates. Currently, there is a general interest in using flexible substrates for all types of active and passive electronic and photonic devices, including transistor logic elements, memory devices, radio frequency and microwave devices, micro-photonics devices, optoelectronic sensors and actuators for MEMS applications, and micropower sources for self-powered systems. One of the critical barriers for realizing flexible systems is that flexible substrates often have low melting temperatures. Current fabrication techniques often have high process temperatures, which are unsuitable for flexible substrates.