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Direct printing methods provide cost-effective routes for manufacturing of functional devices in large-area and unconventional formats. In particular, industrial printing technologies including screen, inkjet, gravure, and flexography, are essential to current and future manufacturing of microelectronics on flexible substrates, including displays, circuits, photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. These printing techniques can rapidly reproduce 2D patterns of functional inks (e.g., metal nanoparticles, organic optoelectric materials) onto flat, curved, flexible and stretchable substrates.