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Problem Addressed

Although there are numerous methods to fabricate nanoparticle/polymer composite materials cheaply and scalably, these nanostructures are characteristically mechanically weak. High temperature treatments, UV treatments, plasma treatments and chemical treatments have been proposed to improve the mechanical properties of nanostructure material; however, these treatments are often very hazardous and can only be applied on durable substrates such as glass, steel and silicon wafers. This does not address the commercial interest in coating flexible, heat-sensitive thermoplastics (e.g., for manufacturing car windshields and anti-fogging apparel).