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Problem Addressed

Conventional lithium-ion batteries have a laminated design and limited energy density. This design uses a colloidal self-organization approach whereby repulsive forces between dissimilar materials are used to form in-situ­ electrochemical junctions in dense particle arrays, while attractive forces between like materials are used to form continuous electronically conductive networks. The system tends toward a thermodynamic ground state where co-continuous interpenetrating networks of cathode and anode create a two-dimensional or three-dimensional interpenetrating electrode battery.