Header and Body 2

Problem Addressed

Many techniques have been developed to fabricate complex 3D structures at the micron scale and below using either top-down or bottom-up approaches. Bottom-up approaches like polymer phase separation, molecular self-assembly, or colloidal assembly are cheap and can cover large areas but face problems of defects and limitations in the type and the geometry of structures that can be formed. While top-down methods offer precise size and shape control, the need to construct the 3D structures using either a point-by-point or layer-by-layer process makes such methods as gray-scale photolithography, direct 3D writing, or 2-photon lithography very time consuming.