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Problem Addressed

Sulfur is cost-effective, non-toxic, earth-abundant, and has a high theoretical capacity when used for lithium batteries.  However, lithium-sulfur batteries typically have poor cyclability due to the active material dissolving into the electrolyte and mechanical damage to the cathode from volume changes during cycling.  This invention increases cycle life by slowing down sulfur loss into the electrolyte and by using a structure that can expand or contract in response to volume changes.