Environmental energy scavenging can regenerate storage devices, but the maximum power capable remains insufficient for RF communications over practical distances. Therefore, there is a need to develop new types of power sources that provide peak power density for intermittent but high load operations, such as emission of a modulated RF signal or powering a fuse. This technology demonstrates encouraging power densities, surpassing the experimental values of micro lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the invention increases the power of "small volume" batteries that will be capable of generating sizable thermopower waves. Meanwhile, there is a pressing need to find alternatives to conventional batteries such as Li-ion, which contain toxic metals, present recycling difficulties due to harmful inorganic components, and rely on elements in finite global supply. Thermopower wave (TPW) devices, which convert chemical to electrical energy by means of self-propagating reaction waves guided along nanostructured thermal conduits, have the potential to address this demand.