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Problem Addressed

The lack of efficient EUV sources, especially at13.5 nm (93 eV) is a roadblock for the development of EUV lithography in the semiconductor industry. The current sources for EUV lithography are either discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources or laser produced plasma (LPP) sources. For future technologies it is likely that the source power requirements will increase beyond 500W, but current source demonstrations for DPP and LPP are below 50 W. Moreover,  DPP and LPP sources are not coherent, making light collection problematic and inefficient. Finally, LPP in particular has the undesired effect of producing debris, which damages source optics. These problems make LPP and DPP unfit as standard sources for the future development of EUV lithography.