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Technology

Conventional transparent electrodes are deposited via sputtering or with solution-processable materials. Both of these methods limit the choice of substrate; however, the proposed method uses oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD), which deposits on virtually any substrate with no pre- or post- treatment. oCVD imparts excellent substrate adhesion through in situ covalent bonding and allows direct control over thickness, dopant concentration, work function, and conductivity. Additionally, the oCVD polymer electrodes retain their electrical integrity even after severe deformation: >1000 flexing cycles at <5mm radius, >100 creasing cycles, and stretching to ~200%.