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Problem Addressed

By simply doubling the electrode thickness, the cost of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) pack could be reduced by ~$600. However, only making the electrodes thicker allows only a fraction of the stored energy to be delivered at high rates because of decreased ion transport through liquid electrolyte filled pores. Increasing the porosity increases ion transport but simultaneously diminishes the battery’s energy density. However, the proposed technology decreases the tortuosity, a measure of the effectiveness of the pore structure in respect to mass transport, which enables a high rate of capability while maintaining the energy density.