The precise assembly of structures that combine organic and inorganic materials and range in size from the nanoscale to the macroscale has been a challenge for the synthetic biology and nanotechnology fields. Current technologies are generally restricted in terms of material diversity, anisotropic patterning, and the degree of control over assembly. Existing phage-based methods, for example, are limited by the length and dimensions of the phage, in addition to restricted subunit patterning due to uncontrolled, random integration (Courchesne et al. 2014). This technology provides the means to combine and pattern a variety of simultaneously expressed heterologous polypeptides to generate structures of varying dimensions, sizes, and functionality in a temporally and/or environmentally (e.g., UV, visible light) inducible manner.