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The invention utilizes nanoparticles, which can be introduces into the blood and excited by using laser irradiation to control blood clotting. Nanoparticles, due to their unique properties, can be excited by laser light in a mutually exclusive manner, enabling selective release of a thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), which acts as an anticoagulant to stop blood clotting, or its antidote to revers the effect.

Once the nanoparticles are introduced into the blood stream, a laser at a certain wavelength triggers the release of a TBA from a corresponding nanoparticle when needed. At another wavelength, the laser triggers the release of the TBA antidote, restoring normal blood clotting to the system.

The technology can be usezd to control thrombolysis (clot dissolution) in a similar manner.