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This invention has a multi-layer architecture, which contains a central bi-layer material sandwiched between metal electrodes. The bi-layer is comprised of the target material to be electronically modified, and a functional material with mobile ionic species. The application of an electric field across the structure of the device causes the ionic species within the functional material to affect the chemical composition of the thin target layer and change its properties. Additionally, a “write head” may be used to control the local voltage or temperature, allowing for spatially-varying material properties.