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The invention describes a method to design efficient, abundant, non-precious-metal catalysts for OER. The design principle looks to develop a more active OER catalyst by engineering the eg filling to a value of ~1.3-1.4. With proper understanding, tuning surface electronic features like the transition metal eg filling is a promising strategy to develop highly active non-precious-metal containing oxide catalysts that can have higher activity than state-of-the-art precious metal-containing material.