This cell display-based assembly method can be used to scaffold, organize, and assemble materials into electrical, magnetic, and spintronic devices. It can be used to generate materials with novel or improved properties, functionalized surface coatings, image contrast agents, and cell-based biosensors.
Microelectronic devices must be assembled into organized structures that meet precise design requirements at the nanometer scale. In the semiconductor industry, this is performed using serial lithography. Alternatively, living systems are capable of assembling organic-inorganic molecules to generate complex hybrid structures (e.g., teeth). Unlike traditional processing methods, the use of biological fabrication systems (i.e., cell display method) allows for parallel self-assembly of multiple components on a single device, self-correction, and compositional accuracy in the context of highly complex architectures.
Complementary biomolecules (e.g., DNA base pairs, antibody-antigen) are stable building blocks of complex biological structures. Biomolecules can also exhibit a highly specific affinity for inorganic molecules, presenting a promising method for the assembly of complex hybrid structures. Cell display uses these strong biological interactions to fabricate and organize materials in a self-assembling production system. Cell display is a protein engineering technique with two steps: 1) Produce a library of genetically encoded biomolecules in a cell population; and 2) select the biomolecules that display novel or improved interactions with a material of interest (e.g., nanoparticles of iron oxide, semiconductor quantum dots). The cells self-assemble and their bound components are organized into higher order structures. This building process can be regulated by external factors (e.g., light, temperature) and is capable of organizing materials from the molecular to the macro scale.
- Low cost of production
- High scalability
- Highly accurate self-assembly
- Self-correcting capability
- Can control the size, shape, and growth of host cells