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The addition of the reactive group to the substrate is achieved by first bonding the substrate to a "cluster" (referring to a small group of atoms or molecules such as metal oxides), then bonding this cluster to the reactive group using a "linker" (such as an alkylene chain, or a continuous chain of covalently bonded atoms). With this structure, a large number of reactive groups can be attached to the same substrate, limited only by the available space on each segment. The technology describes feasible combinations clusters, links and reactive groups, and methods for modifying the substrate to enable attachment.