While attempts to engineer artificial macrovessels have been met with moderate success, methods to create high quality artificial microvessels remain elusive. Macrovascular grafts (6-7 mm inner diameter) made from materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE, Teflon™) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Dacron™) perform at a "gold standard" of 75% for 5-year patency. However, microvascular grafts (less than a 1 mm inner diameter) made from the same materials fall below this standard. In fact, no microvascular grafts, natural or synthetic, has been fully accepted into routine clinical practice. As a result, there is a medical need to develop new methods to produce longer-lasting microvascular grafts.