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Problem Addressed

Optical imaging of body cavities and optical stimulation of biological tissues are often considered as two separate procedures. The endoscopy-based optical imaging requires endoscopes that are relatively large in size with a limited structural flexibility and a small field of view. Alternatively, the optical-fiber-based neuromodulation requires waveguide arrays to stimulate multiple spatial site. These arrays have similar challenges to endoscopes of increased size, mechanical rigidity, and limited invasiveness to biological tissues.