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This invention develops a general approach to synthesize SWCNT/TiO2 complex in dye-sensitized solar cells by biological template self-assembly method, using a genetically engineered M13 virus. The nano-composited photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells are made by first optimizing the virus-SWCNT template through biomineralization of TiO2, This technology focuses on concentration and controls the binding between charged virus and SWCNTs through surface charge modification of the biological molecules.