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Problem Addressed

Membrane distillation is a thermal desalination technology which can provide small-scale desalination. AGMD is an MD configuration with an air-filled cavity between the membrane and condensing surface, traditionally with laminar film condensation. The thermal resistance of the air gap prevents conduction between the cooling surface and hot feed, making AGMD the most efficient mainstream MD technology, at the cost of a large associated mass transfer resistance from diffusion through the air gap. This creates a trade-off between system size and efficiency for AGMD, which requires large condensing areas to be superior.